Table of Contents
- 1 Symptoms of a Bad Steering Rack
- 2 Causes of Steering Rack Failure
- 3 Function of Steering Rack
- 4 Steering Rack Replacement Cost
- 5 How do I know when my steering rack needs replacing?
- 6 Is the steering rack repairable?
- 7 How do you test a steering rack?
- 8 What causes steering rack damage?
- 9 What noise does a bad steering rack make?
- 10 Does the steering rack affect steering?
- 11 What happens if you don’t replace the steering rack?
In many modern cars, the rack and pinion steering system is commonly used to ensure smooth steering operation. At the core of this system lies the steering rack or gearbox. Are you facing the symptoms of a bad steering rack? Do you want to replace it? Don’t worry! This article explains the bad steering rack signs, causes, and how to replace it.
The steering rack plays a crucial role in converting the driver’s input from the steering column and steering into a mechanical signal. This signal is then transmitted to the steering shafts and tie rods, allowing for seamless and efficient turns in both directions. However, over time, the steering rack or gearbox of your vehicle may experience wear and tear.
The steering rack serves as the heart of the steering system. When this part becomes worn out or fails completely, it compromises the capability to turn the car effectively. This situation can be particularly hazardous if it occurs during driving, posing a significant danger to your safety.
Symptoms of a Bad Steering Rack
A bad or faulty steering rack produces one or more of the following symptoms:
- Tight Steering Wheel
- Grinding Noise When Steering
- Stuck Steering Wheel
- Power Steering Fluid Leakage
- Steering Wheel Play
- Steering Wheel Vibration
- Dirty Steering Fluid
- Uneven Tire Wear
- Burning Oil Smell
1) Tight Steering Wheel
A tight steering wheel of your vehicle is one of the clear symptoms of a bad steering rack.
Modern rack and pinion systems are typically held by a power steering unit, which uses hydraulic pressure to ensure easy and swift handling of the steering wheel.
If you encounter a tight or unusually difficult steering wheel, it usually indicates that the steering rack is generating excess heat or a loss of hydraulic pressure from the power steering unit. Addressing this issue promptly is crucial, as it will not resolve itself and requires proper inspection.
Read More: Reasons of a Hard Steering Wheel
2) Grinding Noise When Steering
A damaged or worn steering rack can generate squeaking, knocking, or clunking sounds while turning the steering wheel. This can be caused due to inadequate lubrication and maintenance.
When the system doesn’t have sufficient fluid, the rotating metal parts of the steering system make metal-on-metal contact. The metal-on-meta contact produces a noticeable grinding noise when making right or left turns.
This grinding noise can become particularly prominent when encountering bumps while steering, such as when entering a driveway. If you observe such noise during steering, it is advisable to contact a professional for a prompt diagnosis and potential replacement of the steering gearbox.
3) Stuck Steering Wheel
A stuck steering wheel is one of the major signs of a bad steering rack. When the rubber boots protecting the vehicle’s tie rod become damaged or torn, contaminants may enter the rack, causing the grease to wash away. Over time, this can lead to corrosion and jamming of the rack.
In addition, steering wheel immobilization of your car may also be caused by anti-theft protection or problems with the steering column itself. It is important to note that a bad pump, even in the case of electric systems, should not result in the steering wheel becoming locked.
4) Power Steering Fluid Leakage
Occasionally, tight steering may also indicate insufficient power steering fluid levels.
Since the steering rack of your vehicle relies on hydraulic power. The power steering fluid levels should not reduce unless there is a leak within the system. If you notice a power steering fluid leak, it signifies a broken gasket, loose fitting, or other mechanical problem that requires immediate attention.
Ignoring the issue can lead to excessive heat in the steering rack, potentially causing gear breakage and other parts failures that could result in a dangerous situation.
You can easily identify the leaking power steering fluid by its distinct smell. It usually has a red or pink color and can be observed dripping from the rear part of the engine.
If you notice power steering fluid beneath your vehicle, it is crucial to contact a mechanic promptly to check and fix the leak, preventing further damage.
5) Steering Wheel Play
If you observe significant play or looseness in your steering wheel, where it moves more than usual before the wheels respond, it may be a symptom of a worn-out steering rack.
To assess the presence of play, simply start your vehicle and attempt to steer the wheels by gently touching the steering wheel. The amount of movement you perceive in the steering wheel reflects the level of play.
For cars equipped with a hydraulic fuel pump, 4° of play is considered tolerable, 7° of play is subpar, and 10° of play is excessive. Electronically assisted racks should ideally exhibit even less play.
In a few car models, it is possible to adjust the preload of the steering rack to reduce play. Consult your vehicle-manufactured manual or the car’s service manual to determine if the steering wheel slack can be adjusted.
6) Steering Wheel Vibration
A faulty steering rack may also lead to shuddering or vibration in the steering wheel, particularly while turning or driving at higher speeds. This vibration may be produced by insufficient responsiveness or a wobbling sensation.
7) Dirty Steering Fluid
The majority of vehicles on the road today are equipped with a hydraulic system, which greatly reduces the effort required to turn the tires. Power steering fluid plays a crucial role as both a coolant and a lubricant, helping in the smooth operation of the steering column.
However, the effectiveness of the lubricating properties of the steering components can be significantly diminished by the accumulation of dirt and debris.
When the fluid becomes contaminated, it may lead to increased pressure on the steering rack, resulting in a higher chance of experiencing issues with the steering system.
Consequently, it is important to regularly drain and replace the power steering fluid with clean fluid to ensure optimal operation.
Nevertheless, if the fluid remains dirty despite routine maintenance, it could indicate that the steering rack has reached the end of its lifespan and may require replacement.
Read More: How To Change Power Steering Fluid?
8) Uneven Tire Wear
A bad steering rack may also lead to uneven tire wear.
If you observe that the tread on your car’s tires is wearing unevenly or one side is wearing more than the other, it may be due to a misalignment caused by steering rack problems.
Read More: Causes of Tire Wear
9) Burning Oil Smell
The burning oil smell is also a sign of a bad steering rack, but it is less common. The power steering fluid has a smell like burnt oil; a strong aroma of burnt oil may be present when the steering gearbox becomes overheated.
In such a scenario, it is crucial to instantly stop your car, find a safe location to park, and promptly call a professional. Continuing to drive when the steering rack is overheating can pose a risk of fire and cause severe damage.
Causes of Steering Rack Failure
The steering rack of your vehicle may go bad due to one or more of the following reasons:
- Normal Wear and Tear
- Dirty or insufficient power steering fluid
- Poor maintenance
- Impacts and accidents
- Incorrect wheel alignment
- Towing or hauling heavy loads
- Environmental factors such as extreme cold or extreme temperatures
- Manufacturing faults
- Excessive vibrations and unusual noises
Function of Steering Rack
The steering rack is a crucial component of your vehicle’s steering system, enabling the vehicle’s wheels to turn as you turn the steering wheel.
This system operates by transmitting the rotational input from the steering wheel to a pinion gear. The pinion gear, in turn, engages with a toothed rack, causing it to move either to the right or left. This movement, in concert with the tie rods, controls the steering angle of the wheels and allows the vehicle to change direction.
Steering Rack Replacement Cost
The replacement cost of the steering rack depends on your vehicle’s make and model and the labor cost in your area. The average replacement cost of the steering rack is from $90 to $500.
How do I know when my steering rack needs replacing?
When the steering rack of your vehicle goes bad, it produces different signs such as a tight steering wheel, grinding noise while steering, stuck steering wheel, leaky power steering fluid, steering wheel play, dirty steering fluid, burning oil smell, or uneven oil smell. If you notice any of these symptoms, it means something is wrong with your steering rack and you need to replace it.
Is the steering rack repairable?
Yes, a steering rack can be repaired by replacing its seals, but the process is time-consuming and more challenging for the deeper internal seals without specialized tools. As a result, replacing the entire steering rack is often the more cost-effective solution.
How do you test a steering rack?
To perform a steering box inspection, it is necessary to elevate the front of your vehicle while ensuring its weight remains on the wheels. Once elevated, you can position yourself beneath the car while another person gently turns the wheels. To ensure safety, drive the car onto a set of ramps that are resting on a level surface directly beneath the wheels.
What causes steering rack damage?
A steering rack may be damaged due to an accident of your car, poor maintenance, contaminants, steering fluid leakage, or wear and tear.
What noise does a bad steering rack make?
A bad steering rack may create different noises, such as creaking, knocking, or clunking noises while turning the steering wheel. These sounds are usually accompanied by a clear increase in steering effort, uneven steering response, or a feeling of play in the steering.
Does the steering rack affect steering?
The steering rack is a crucial component in your car’s steering system as it connects the steering wheel to the car’s wheels. If the steering rack sustains damage, the power steering performance will be significantly diminished.
What happens if you don’t replace the steering rack?
A worn steering rack may result in a loss of complete or partial control over the steering wheel, posing a significant risk of accidents with potentially fatal consequences. It is crucial to emphasize that servicing the steering rack is an important and costly maintenance procedure for a vehicle.